27/11/2006 Issue 200 Past Issues
 

Red Sea Newsletter

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SPONSOR SPOTLIGHT


 
 

Feature Article...


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History of Egypt...

 

The Early Dynastic Period is a period of some 500 years or more a the beginning of what is conventionally considered as the history o Ancient Egypt. It was the culmination of the formative stage of th Ancient Egyptian culture that began centuries before during th Prehistory

It was during this period that the divine kingship became wel established as Egypt's form of government, and with it, an entir culture that would remain virtually unchanged for the next 3000 or more years. Writing evolved from a few simple signs mainly used to denote quantities of substances and their provenance, to a comple system of several hundreds of signs with both phonetic an ideographic values

The typical ancient Egyptian artistic canon took shape for both two and three dimensional representions, determining the work of artist for millenia to come

Craftsmen increased their skills and experimented with the use of more durable materials. Structures built in brick, wood and reed were copied in stone, giving birth to the typical Ancient Egyptia architecture. Most of the features developed during the Earl Dynastic Period would remain in use until the Greek-Roman Period more than 3000 years later.

Another very important change that marks the beginning of the Earl Dynastic Period is the rise of urbanism. Inhabitants of smal settlements throughout the country abandoned their homes and moved to larger communities and cities. Several key factors, that could vary from region to region, have influenced this process o urbanisation

  • The need for security may have caused people to seek protection within the safety of fortified walls.
  • It facilitated central control of the population by the state. Some relocations may thus have been forced by the government. The process of urbanisation appears to have started earlier in societies with a stronger hierarchical structure.
  • Changes in the natural environment. This has apparently been the case at Hierakonpolis, one of the most important cities in late Predynastic Egypt.
  • Society was evolving beyond its mere agricultural needs and required specialised craftsmen, traders and other skilled personnel. The ruling elite needed these people not only to be close at hand, but also to work and thus live together.
  • Demographic changes, such as a growth in population, may have caused smaller settlements to extend and merge into one larger community.

As the Early Dynastic Period is the culmination of an on-goin cultural, religious and political evolution, it is hard to determine it actual beginning. According to the Ancient Egyptian tradition, th first (human) king to have ruled over the whole of Egypt was a ma named Menes. He is considered the first king of the 1st Dynasty and tradition credited him with the unification of Upper- and Lower-Egypt. As none of the sources from the Early Dynastic Period mention his name and as none of the deeds credited to him can be associated with any of the archaeologically attested kings, the identification of this Menes, however, is problematic.

Both in the Turin King-list and with Manetho, this Menes follows a long list of gods and demi-gods who ruled before him. The first row on the Palermo Stone contains names of kings who allegedly ruled Egypt before him. As our knowledge of this early stage of Egyptian history evolves, we are finding sources that hint at powerful rulers living in Middle and Upper Egypt who already had extended their influence, if not their realm, to parts of Lower Egypt. This information may correspond to the mythical rulers in the Turin King-list and to the names listed in the first row of the Palermo Stone, if not literally, then perhaps simply as a confirmation that the Ancient Egyptian chroniclers were aware of the existence of kings before Menes. This has led some authors to propose that there may have been a Dynasty "0" before the 1st Dynasty. It is not certain that the kings placed in this hypothetical Dynasty "0" actually belonged to the same ruling family and to what extent they all ruled over the same area.

In most books dealing with the history of Ancient Egypt, the Earl Dynastic Period usually consists of the first two dynasties. This i based on the fact that the first pyramids were built during the 3rd Dynasty and that the Old Kingdom is often viewed as "the age of the pyramids". This has caused the 3rd Dynasty to be included in the Old Kingdom.

It needs to be pointed out, however, that the pyramids built during th 3rd Dynasty were Step Pyramids and not the "true" pyramids tha were built from the start of the 4th Dynasty on. The complexe surrounding Netjerikhet's Step Pyramid and Sekhemkhet's unfinished step pyramid, both at Saqqara, are unlike the funerary complexes of the 4th Dynasty and later. As such, the Step Pyramid and the funerary complexes of the 3rd Dynasty can still be considered as part of the formative stage of pyramid building.

The kings during the 3rd Dynasty were still known mainly by thei Horus-title, but from the 4th Dynasty on, the Prenomen, and later the Nomen, become the more important titles. This may indicate in shift in views on the divine kingship: during the first three dynasties, the king was a living embodiment of the god Horus, whereas from the 4th Dynasty on, he came to be the son of the solar god Re.

The 3rd Dynasty should therefore rather be part of the Early Dynasti Period than the Old Kingdom. As such, it played a pivotal role i consolidating the political, religious and cultural evolution that ha started centuries before

It should, on the other hand, be noted that the Turin King-list simply lists the kings of the first 5 dynasties, without further classification. This may mean that at the time of the composition of the Turin King-list's original, the first 5 dynasties were viewed as a whole. Our division of that timeframe into an Early Dynastic Period and an Old Kingdom, does not correspond to the views of some Ancient Egyptian chroniclers.

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
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What's On...

 


SANTA CLAUS


is coming to town

6th of December 2006

5 pm at

Villa Kunterbunt
(Arabia Hotel - Hurghada)

for Details please call
Barbara +20 (0) 10 123 23 54

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
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Ask Harry: Useful tips for Residents

 

Harry Krueger - The new SpotRedSea columnist

Harry Krueger, German resident in Hurghada for more than 2 years already, and owner of Cafe del Mar, will give tips and tricks around the residential life in Egypt and especially Hurghada from now on in our SpotRedSea Newsletter.

If you have any questions concerning life in Egypt - ask Harry! (Send to: news@spotlocal.net)




harry inter.This time Harry will introduce you into the fascinating world of Airports.

Hurghada which has been a Military Airbase, but since 15 years it is getting more and more a Civil Facility.

Our interview today is with Mr. Etienne Jambeau, Airport Director of EACo..

Etienne, 40, married to an Cambodian woman, developed Angkor Wat Airport and is in Charge for Hurghada Airport as a Director from EACo., since February 2005.

Harry: Why is an Egyptian Airport managed by French Company?
Mr. Etienne: It was an Egyptian Government decision, Ministry of Civil Aviation, to develop the project and for that it needed a huge amount of money. So they took out a loan from the World bank. One of the conditions was to have foreign companies in charge for operational management and for logistical management, by the way done from German Company Fraport.

So EAC (Egyptian Airport Company) cares since four years for the operational side, which means maintenance, developing the terminals in terms of security, service and Quality Standards. We work on raising the standards to international level by training the local staff, transfer Know-how, developing traffic, make airport economically proper and at least looking for the revenues in these fields.

We are in charge for 5 Egyptian Airports which are Hurghada, Sharm, Luxor, Aswan and Abou Simbel, excluded Alexandria and Cairo which has around 11 Million Arrivals and Departures. For example Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada together have nearly equal numbers of passengers: 4.6 Million each: 90% international flights and 10% domestic.
Harry: Will the numbers of passengers increase this year?

2005 we had three damages influencing the tourism. The incidents happened in May in Cairo, July in Sharm, and October in Taba.

Compared to this numbers we can talk about stable business in 2006.  It went off smoothly but not increased. But this year is not finished yet …. Even we can say the western Europeans travel less and not only not to Egypt. The living costs in these countries rose up, so it is spent less money for holidays in general.

After all we made special promotions for the landing fees for Airlines.
Visitor numbers are balanced by East Europeans, Russian, Czech and Polish.

Harry:  Do you have exact numbers?

The monthly average of Germans arriving in Hurghada is around 55.000, Russians depending on the season 30.000 in summertime and 50.000 in winter, Czechs around 10.000, British 9.000 and Italians 6.000.

Guest from other Arabian countries usually enter Egypt at Cairo Airport. They are attracted more by big City Life than beaches. Upper Egyptians returning from work in the Gulf countries enter at Luxor Airport or come by boat from Aquaba, Jordan.

Harry: The Forecasts talks about an estimated 6 till 8 Million arrivals and departures in the next years. How can you manage this?
We will! It’s definite  that we will spent another 180 Million Dollar for a second runway, south from the existing one, get a new nice designed terminal on three levels with ten bridges, new parking stands, ….
Harry: Aha, and what about some reasonable priced schedule flights for the foreign residents?

Well more good news! In the moment we have got 95% packag

e travelers, but the government also supports individual traffic. It will play a bigger role and needs more attention in the future. Just think about the guests who stay here in El Gouna or in the new project Sal Hashish. An expanding market …

Harry: Before I say thank you in the name of our readers as always some practical advices?

Please remind that residents can take also charter flights out of Hurghada, when their stay is not longer than 90 days. Otherwise you take the increasing numbers of scheduled flights, which go regularly. Ask you agency.

The Entrance and car parking fee is 3,5 LE, a passenger trolley is 2 LE (don't pay more!) and from the next month on free. Don’t give money to the men who offer you to carry your suitcases. They usually work as a member of the cleaning staff.  The salary for them was just tripled, so toilet is free and the visa stamp is 15 US and 25 US with the service of the Tour operators.

Especially at Saturdays and Thursdays arrive not later than 2.5 hours before departure time. There are no special custom rules. With the exception of ancient take all kinds of Souvenirs, but please leave the Red Sea in your memory as it is. Protect the environment, thank you.

Etienne Jambeau, 40, married to an Cambodian woman, developed Angkor Wat Airport and is in Charge for Hurghada Airport as a Director from EACo., since February 2005.

 

 
 
 
 
 

Body&Soul

 

Biodanza

Natural Movement of Life

For women from 18 to 98 years
Whatever your physic, weight or language


Biodanza

Easy and simple movements
to expressive and various music

Rediscover your energy and joy
Get better health, forget stress
Reinforce your self-confidence
Find the harmony in you
Meet new friends

Come and join us every Friday at 7 pm in a gym only for women close to Hotel La Perla Price 20 LE

For more information: Juliette Bemant 010 6859771
www.biodanza-egypt.com ::: info@biodanza-egypt.com

 

 
 
 
 

Parents & Kids...

Pen Holder Collage

Make a pen holder featuring someone's favorite things - any hobby or interest can be used, you just need pictures of the thing you want to put on it!

This project is rated VERY EASY to do

What You Need

  • Empty soup can
  • Old magazines (that you can cut --- get permission first!)
  • White "school" glue
  • Scissors
  • Paint brush
  • Construction paper (background), optional
  • Color photocopies of the family, optional
  • Clear Con-Tact paper, optional

How To Make It

  1. Make sure that the can is clean and dry.
  2. If you are going to use a construction paper base (then you don't have to cover the entire can with pictures) glue it to the can - making sure to glue down all the edges well, and overlapping the paper a bit where it meets.
  3. Go through the old magazines and find words and pictures that remind you of the person you're making the gift for. (It can be words like love, sports, tools, jogging, running, crafts, work, fun, games, or any other words that make you think of him or her. The pictures don't need to look like him/her or even be pictures of people. Do they love animals? Sports? Fishing? Cooking? Try to find small pictures of things.) Cut these out as carefully as you can, leaving a small border around the edges.
  4. This project usually works better if you glue the pictures on first and then use the words to fill in the empty spaces. This makes it easier to read the words as well. You can place the words horizontally (side-to-side like they are in books) or diagonally (on a slant). Cover as much of the can as you are able. Let the can completely dry before the next step!
  5. Check all edges to make sure the pieces are all smooth and repair any that are sticking up instead of laying flat against the can.
  6. Make a mixture of glue and water. Use the paintbrush to lightly coat the can. This will "seal" your work and it should keep the edges from curling up later.
    or cut the Con-Tact paper to be a bit larger than the can. Carefully wrap it around the can. Trim off the excess.
  7. Wrap the can and give it to that special someone!

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 

Recipe

 

 

Lamb and Chick Peas over Rice - Indian Style

Preparation Time: 30 minutes - 1 hour
Cooking Time: 1 - 2 hours
Serves: 6

lamb & chick peasIngredients:

  • Lamb - preferably ground, about a pound
  • Chick peas/garbanzos
  • Diced tomatoes
  • Peas
  • Rice (better brown basmati)
  • Ginger
  • Garlic
  • Onion
  • Chiles
  • Cilantro
  • Whole cloves
  • Cinnamon sticks
  • Coriander
  • Tumeric
  • Bay Leaves
  • Cumin

Preparation:

  1. Drain your can of tomatoes, and POUR THE LIQUID INTO A BOWL. Add enough water (or lamb broth) to make about 2 1/2 cups. Add 6 cloves and a cinnamon stick, and nuke that stuff for 3-4 minutes. You want it to steep with the spices, like a tea. Leave it till you're ready to use it, but make sure it steeps for at least 15 minutes.
  2. I started my rice now, since it's a brown rice and it takes about 45 minutes. So, start your rice at the right time, a'ight?
    Dice up your onion, and chop or grate your ginger and garlic.
    A note on the lamb: Ground is the easiest and best lamb to use, also cheap. They didn't have ground at my grocery store today, and no butcher to grind any, either, so I ended up getting neck pieces because they were cheap. I had to simmer them for about an hour and a half in order to shred the meat and minimize the fat and sinew. Pain in the tush, but I got a nice lamb broth out of it, which I used earlier instead of water for a richer flavor.
  3. If you have ground lamb, first, brown that up in a large skillet, then add the onions, garlic, ginger and bay leaves. (My lamb is already cooked and shredded).
    Saute on medium heat for about 8 minutes until you get a little color on the onions and the meat.
  4. Drain the chick peas and add them to the pan, along with the tomato broth stuff (COUNT YOUR CLOVES and try and use large ones, or just take them out at this point) about a cup and a half of the diced tomatoes, the chiles, coriander, tumeric, cumin and salt.
    Now, all you have to do is simmer this down till it's mostly dry.
  5. When it's almost ready, adjust your seasonings, then add a handful of frozen peas and a bunch of chopped cilantro.
  6. Look at that tomatoey, chick peaey, clovey goodness. Don't forget to pick out the cloves and cinnamon stick. Biting into a clove is just about the nastiest thing ever.

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

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